jackie robinson family
Jackie Robinson was a famous baseball player he was the first person, to break the color barrier. The rotunda was dedicated at the opening of Citi Field on April 16, 2009. , Major League Baseball has honored Robinson many times since his death.  He enrolled in the Army in search of a disciplined environment, served in the Vietnam War, and was wounded in action on November 19, 1965. " In 1947 or 1948, Reese is said to have put his arm around Robinson in response to fans who shouted racial slurs at Robinson before a game in Boston or Cincinnati.  Robinson then accepted an offer from his old friend and pastor Rev. , Following Stanky's trade to the Boston Braves in March 1948, Robinson took over second base, where he logged a .980 fielding percentage that year (second in the National League at the position, fractionally behind Stanky). On April 18, 1946, Roosevelt Stadium hosted the Jersey City Giants' season opener against the Montreal Royals, marking the professional debut of the Royals' Jackie Robinson and the first time the color barrier had been broken in a game between two minor league clubs. In the end, Montreal was the perfect place for him to get his start. The Dodgers tried Robinson in the outfield and as a third baseman, both because of his diminishing abilities and because Gilliam was established at second base.  On June 17, 1971, he was killed in an automobile accident at age 24. Robinson's eldest son, Jackie Robinson Jr., had emotional trouble during his childhood and entered special education at an early age.  The gesture was originally the idea of outfielder Ken Griffey, Jr., who sought Rachel Robinson's permission to wear the number. JRF FAMILY; DONATE; Search. The school also announced it would prominently display the number at all of its athletic venues. $95 million Grants / Programs. About Jackie Robinson. Jackie Robinson was born in 1910s. She and Jackie had three children: Jackie Robinson Jr. (1946–1971), Sharon Robinson (b. " Regarding Robinson's qualities on the field, Leo Durocher said, "Ya want a guy that comes to play.  Robinson was one of only two players during the span of 1947–56 to accumulate at least 125 steals while registering a slugging percentage over .425 (Minnie Miñoso was the other).  After protests by heavyweight boxing champion Joe Louis (then stationed at Fort Riley) and with the help of Truman Gibson (then an assistant civilian aide to the Secretary of War), the men were accepted into OCS.  According to a press report, the St. Louis Cardinals threatened to strike if Robinson played and to spread the walkout across the entire National League. His father left the family a year later. Mets owner Fred Wilpon announced that the Mets—in conjunction with Citigroup and the Jackie Robinson Foundation—will create a Jackie Robinson Museum and Learning Center, located at the headquarters of the Jackie Robinson Foundation at One Hudson Square, along Canal Street in lower Manhattan.  Robinson also talked frequently with Larry Doby, who endured his own hardships since becoming the first black player in the American League with the Cleveland Indians, as the two spoke to one another via telephone throughout the season.  Robinson's daughter, Sharon, became a midwife, educator, director of educational programming for MLB, and the author of two books about her father. Although the team enjoyed ultimate success, 1955 was the worst year of Robinson's individual career. Weary of constant disagreements with O'Malley, and with no hope of being re-appointed as President of the Dodgers, Rickey cashed out his one-quarter financial interest in the team, leaving O'Malley in full control of the franchise. Muchnick. With courage, determination and athletic prowess, he paved the way for Black players who followed him, proving that people should not be treated differently because of their skin color. , According to a poll conducted in 1947, Robinson was the second most popular man in the country, behind Bing Crosby. JRF Scholars Program. In 1997, the world celebrated the 50th Anniversary of Jackie’s breaking Major League Baseball’s color barrier.  From 1957 to 1964, Robinson was the vice president for personnel at Chock full o'Nuts; he was the first black person to serve as vice president of a major American corporation. Although Sandel induced Robinson to ground out at his first at bat, Robinson ended up with four hits in his five trips to the plate; his first hit was a three-run home run in the game's third inning. support the family. Jack Roosevelt Robinson was born in Cairo, Georgia in 1919 to a family of sharecroppers. He gratefully accepted a plaque honoring the twenty-fifth anniversary of his MLB debut, but also commented, "I'm going to be tremendously more pleased and more proud when I look at that third base coaching line one day and see a black face managing in baseball. In a letter read during the ceremony, Rachel Robinson, Jackie's widow, wrote: "I remember Montreal and that house very well and have always had warm feeling for that great city.  Existence of the plot was said to have been leaked by the Cardinals' team physician, Robert Hyland, to a friend, the New York Herald Tribune's Rutherford "Rud" Rennie. ", "Larry Doby Remembers Being Introduced To", "Did You See Jackie Robinson Hit That Ball? Choisissez parmi des contenus premium Jackie Robinson Family de la plus haute qualité. On Tuesday, April 15th, President Bill Clinton paid tribute to Jackie at Shea Stadium in New York in a special ceremony. , During the 1951 season, Robinson led the National League in double plays made by a second baseman for the second year in a row, with 137.  On the same day, with representatives of the Royals and Dodgers present, Robinson formally signed his contract with the Royals. Jackie Robinson's Family The family baseball player Jackie Robinson, front row from left, sons Jackie Robinson Jr. (1946 - 1971) and David Robinson, wife Rachel Robinson (nee Isum), and daughter Sharon Robinson, attend an event commemorating his retirement from baseball, 1959. Sources point to various reasons for Robinson's departure from UCLA. "I do not care if half the league strikes.  Robinson has also been honored by the United States Postal Service on three separate postage stamps, in 1982, 1999, and 2000.  As a result, Robinson joined a neighborhood gang, but his friend Carl Anderson persuaded him to abandon it.  She also served on the board of the Freedom National Bank until it closed in 1990. Jackie Robinson’s family celebrated his 100th birthday at the So Pas Public Library.  Robinson refused. " Greenberg had advised him to overcome his critics by defeating them in games.  After the season, the Dodgers traded Robinson to the arch-rival New York Giants for Dick Littlefield and $35,000 cash (equal to $329,137 today).  Larry Doby, who broke the color line in the American League the same year as Robinson, said, "One of the things that was disappointing and disheartening to a lot of the black players at the time was that Jack was not the best player. , By the time of the court-martial in August 1944, the charges against Robinson had been reduced to two counts of insubordination during questioning. Mar 5, 2014 - Explore Amber Waddell's board "Pictures of Jackie Robinsons Family life" on Pinterest. Karl Downs, President of Sam Huston College (now Huston-Tillotson University) in nearby Austin, Texas; in California, Downs had been Robinson's pastor at Scott United Methodist Church while Robinson attended PJC.  In 1964, he helped found, with Harlem businessman Dunbar McLaurin, Freedom National Bank—a black-owned and operated commercial bank based in Harlem. For a general survey of the media reaction to Robinson at various phases of his career, In addition to Robinson, the 1949 All-Star game featured, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Major League Baseball Rookie of the Year Award, History of baseball in the United States § Racial integration in baseball, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 100 most influential people of the 20th century, The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts, New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, List of first black Major League Baseball players, List of Negro league baseball players who played in Major League Baseball, List of Major League Baseball batting champions, List of Major League Baseball career stolen bases leaders, List of Major League Baseball retired numbers, List of Major League Baseball annual stolen base leaders, List of Major League Baseball players who spent their entire career with one franchise, List of Major League Baseball players to hit for the cycle, List of NCAA major college football yearly rushing leaders, List of NCAA major college yearly punt and kickoff return leaders, "Boston Braves at Brooklyn Dodgers Box Score, April 15, 1947", "Branch Rickey and Jackie Robinson: precursors of the civil rights movement", "In Pharaoh's Land: Cairo, Georgia 1919–1920", "White House dream team: Jackie Roosevelt Robinson", "Teammates Recall Jackie Robinson's Legacy", "The Interrelated Back Stories of Kenny Washington Reintegrating the NFL in 1946 and Jackie Robinson Integrating Major League Baseball in 1947", "Outdoor Track and Field: Division I Men's", "Alumnus Jackie Robinson honored by Congress", "Black History Biographies Jackie Robinson", "Truman K. Gibson, who fought Army segregation, is dead at 93", "Jackie Robinson, College Basketball Coach", "Jackie Robinson A Register of His Papers in the Library of Congress", "The Boston Red Sox and Racism: With New Owners, Team Confronts Legacy of Intolerance", "The Ball Stayed White, but the Game Did Not", "Jackie Robinson Breaks Baseball's Color Barrier, 1945", "Breaking a barrier 60 years before Robinson", "A Field of Dreams: The Jackie Robinson Ballpark", "Jackie Robinson Ballpark / Daytona Cubs", "Jackie Robinson breaks major league color barrier", "The 'Strike' Against Jackie Robinson: Truth or Myth? Dodgers sportscaster Vin Scully later noted that the incident showed "how much of a competitor Robinson was. Jackie Robinson’s family celebrated his 100th birthday at the So Pas Public Library. At the end of Robinson’s rookie season with the Brooklyn Dodgers, he had become National League Rookie of the Year with 12 homers, a league-leading 29 steals, and a .297 average. With the track and field squad, he won awards in the broad jump. I'm the manager of this team, and I say he plays. Rachel and their three children, Jackie Jr., Sharon and David, provided Jackie with the emotional support and sense of purpose essential for bearing the pressure during the early years of baseball. Since 1997, only Wayne Gretzky's number 99, retired by the NHL in 2000, has been retired league-wide. , Robinson was active in politics throughout his post-baseball life. Mack Robinson (eigentlich: Matthew MacKenzie Robinson; * 18.Juli 1914 in Cairo, Georgia; † 12. Jack Roosevelt Robinson was born on January 31, 1919, into a family of sharecroppers in Cairo, Georgia. Chadwick Boseman 1976-2020. Robinson was inducted into the baseball hall of fame in 1962. See more ideas about jackie robinson, pictures of jackie robinson, robinson family. They were the only black family on their block, and the prejudice they encountered only strengthened their bond. In Sanford, Florida, the police chief threatened to cancel games if Robinson and Wright did not cease training activities there; as a result, Robinson was sent back to Daytona Beach. Sa mère, choisit Roosevelt comme deuxième prénom en hommage au président Theodore Roosevelt, mort vingt-cinq jours avant la naissance de Jackie . Although the Army's initial July 1941 guidelines for OCS had been drafted as race neutral, few black applicants were admitted into OCS until after subsequent directives by Army leadership. , Racial pressure on Robinson eased in 1948 when a number of other black players entered the major leagues. And he and Pee Wee Reese, who was kind to Robinson and collaborated with him on double plays, became my heroes. "You will find that the friends that you think you have in the press box will not support you, that you will be outcasts," Frick was quoted as saying. ", Beginning his major league career at the relatively advanced age of 28, he played only ten seasons from 1947 to 1956, all of them for the Brooklyn Dodgers.  The house, at 8232 avenue de Gaspé near Jarry Park, was Robinson's residence when he played for the Montreal Royals during 1946. In its fourth decade of licensing and clearing intellectual property rights, CMG Worldwide is the recognized leader in its field. City Island Ballpark in Daytona Beach, Florida was renamed Jackie Robinson Ballpark in 1990 and a statue of Robinson with two children stands in front of the ballpark.  When Robinson later confronted the investigating duty officer about racist questioning by the officer and his assistant, the officer recommended Robinson be court-martialed. MLB also adopted a new annual tradition, "Jackie Robinson Day", for the first time on April 15, 2004, on which every player on every team wears No. Jack Roosevelt Robinson voit le jour le 31 janvier 1919 à Cairo dans l'État de Géorgie en pleine épidémie de « grippe espagnole ». In doing so, we honored the man who stood defiantly against those who would work against racial equality and acknowledged the profound influence of one man’s life on the American culture. The Major Leagues had not had an African-American player since 1889, when baseball became segregated. That September, he signed with Chet Brewer's Kansas City Royals, a post-season barnstorming team in the California Winter League. Their names are David and Jackie Robinson Jr. David is the youngest of the three and he was born in 1952.  The stadium also unveiled a new mural of Robinson by Mike Sullivan on April 14, 2013. That year, he served as editor for Our Sports magazine, a periodical focusing on Negro sports issues; contributions to the magazine included an article on golf course segregation by Robinson's old friend Joe Louis.  Later that year, after he complained of numerous physical ailments, he was diagnosed with diabetes, a disease that also afflicted his brothers. , A number of buildings have been named in Robinson's honor. Manager Leo Durocher informed the team, "I do not care if the guy is yellow or black, or if he has stripes like a fuckin' zebra.  In Jacksonville, the stadium was padlocked shut without warning on game day, by order of the city's Parks and Public Property director. He was a shortstop and leadoff hitter for the baseball team, and he broke school broad-jump records held by his brother Mack. At UCLA, Jackie became the first athlete to win varsity letters in four sports: baseball, basketball, football and track. His best day at the plate was on June 17, when he hit two home runs and two doubles. , Robinson's eldest son, Jackie Robinson Jr., had emotional trouble during his childhood and entered special education at an early age. Nobody wants to quit when he’s losing; nobody wants you to quit when you’re ahead.” – Jackie Robinson “It kills me to lose.  Robinson was angered by conservative Republican opposition to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. She also served on the board of the Freedom National Bank until it closed in 1990. Jackie Roosevelt Robinson est né le 31 janvier 1919 à Cairo dans l'État de Géorgie en pleine épidémie de « grippe espagnole ».  On April 15, 2008, she announced that in 2010 the foundation would open a museum devoted to Jackie in Lower Manhattan. , At Muir Tech, Robinson played several sports at the varsity level and lettered in four of them: football, basketball, track, and baseball. Discover what happened on this day. , In 1936, Robinson won the junior boys singles championship in the annual Pacific Coast Negro Tennis Tournament and earned a place on the Pomona annual baseball tournament all-star team, which included future Hall of Famers Ted Williams and Bob Lemon. After this Jackie’s mother moved Jackie and his family to Pasadena in California.  Ultimately, more than 200 players wore number 42, including the entire rosters of the Los Angeles Dodgers, New York Mets, Houston Astros, Philadelphia Phillies, St. Louis Cardinals, Milwaukee Brewers, and Pittsburgh Pirates. Robinson broke the baseball color line when he debuted with the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947. Jakie Robinson was a man among men. Jackie Robinson, the quintessential warrior with a heart of tremendous compassion for the poor, the struggling, the underserved members of the community in which he lived.  After Robinson's father left the family in 1920, they moved to Pasadena, California. Ellis.  Robinson also chaired the NAACP's million-dollar Freedom Fund Drive in 1957, and served on the organization's board until 1967. Louis.  Other portrayals include: Robinson was also the subject of a 2016 PBS documentary, Jackie Robinson, which was directed by Ken Burns and features Jamie Foxx doing voice-over as Robinson. Jackie married Rachel Isum, a nursing student he met at UCLA, in 1946. Jesse Jackson gave the eulogy.  In 2002, Molefi Kete Asante included Robinson on his list of 100 Greatest African Americans. 1952). Join the Jackie Robinson Foundation in promoting equal opportunity & humanitarianism through scholarships, mentoring & leadership training – and help build the Jackie Robinson Museum. This parkway bisects the cemetery in close proximity to Robinson's gravesite. ", Before the 1951 season, O'Malley reportedly offered Robinson the job of manager of the Montreal Royals, effective at the end of Robinson's playing career. While Robinson wore several different numbers during his UCLA career, the school chose 42 because it had become indelibly identified with him.  The Cardinals players denied that they were planning to strike, and Woodward later told author Roger Kahn that Frick was his true source; writer Warren Corbett said that Frick's speech "never happened".  Robinson exhibited the combination of hitting ability and speed which exemplified the new era. Jack Roosevelt Robinson was born in Cairo, Georgia in 1919 to a family of sharecroppers. Robinson was reluctant to testify, but he eventually agreed to do so, fearing it might negatively affect his career if he declined. If I’m a troublemaker, and I … On the date of Robinson’s historic debut, all Major League teams across the nation celebrated this milestone. That year, on the television show Youth Wants to Know, Robinson challenged the Yankees' general manager, George Weiss, on the racial record of his team, which had yet to sign a black player. Jack Roosevelt Robinson is part of G.I. As a result of his great success, Jackie was eventually inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1962. Als er die John Muir Technical High School in Pasadena besuchte, stellten die Ärzte einen Herzfehler bei ihm fest. @realDonaldTrump — Sharon Robinson (@sharonarobinson) October 8, 2020 ", Robinson was also derided by opposing teams. , After his discharge, Robinson briefly returned to his old football club, the Los Angeles Bulldogs. His mother took the children and moved to Pasadena, California where she lived with other members of her family. Jackie Robinson was a famous baseball player he was the first person, to break the color barrier. " This wish was only fulfilled after Robinson's death: following the 1974 season, the Cleveland Indians gave their managerial post to Frank Robinson (no relation to Jackie), a Hall of Fame-bound player who would go on to manage three other teams. , In 1947, the Dodgers called Robinson up to the major leagues six days before the start of the season. JRF Scholars Program. He had grown used to a structured playing environment in college, and the Negro leagues' disorganization and embrace of gambling interests appalled him. Overcoming his dejection, Robinson dutifully observed Thomson's feet to ensure he touched all the bases. Chadwick Boseman 1976-2020. https://www.biography.com/news/jackie-robinson-family-album ", Robinson's Hollywood exploits, however, did not sit well with Dodgers co-owner Walter O'Malley, who referred to Robinson as "Rickey's prima donna". @realDonaldTrump — Sharon Robinson (@sharonarobinson) October 8, 2020 He would duplicate that feat as a standout football player at UCLA, before relocating to Hawaii to play semi-professional football with the Honolulu Bears. , For other people named Jackie Robinson, see, Robinson with the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1954. Rickey selected Robinson from a list of promising black players and interviewed him for possible assignment to Brooklyn's International League farm club, the Montreal Royals. Néanmoins, il a été nommé le joueur le plus utile de la ligue pour la saison 1946 (il a gagné de nouveau en 1949).  He played shortstop and catcher on the baseball team, quarterback on the football team, and guard on the basketball team. ", Although he required Robinson to keep the arrangement a secret for the time being, Rickey committed to formally signing Robinson before November 1, 1945. If you love underdogs and you're into democracy and you're a girl, Jackie Robinson is the perfect player. The event motivated Jackie to pursue his athletic career at the nearby University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), where he could remain closer to Frank's family. Jackie Robinson Museum. , After his acquittal, he was transferred to Camp Breckinridge, Kentucky, where he served as a coach for army athletics until receiving an honorable discharge in November 1944. She became an assistant professor at the Yale School of Nursing and director of nursing at the Connecticut Mental Health Center.  He was not necessarily the best player in the Negro leagues, and black talents Satchel Paige and Josh Gibson were upset when Robinson was selected first.  The New York Yankees honor Robinson with a plaque in Monument Park. Jackie’s mom worked a lot of different jobs to support the family.  On April 22, 1947, during a game between the Dodgers and the Philadelphia Phillies, Phillies players and manager Ben Chapman called Robinson a "nigger" from their dugout and yelled that he should "go back to the cotton fields". In 1947, Brooklyn Dodgers president Branch Rickey approached Jackie about joining the Brooklyn Dodgers. 1990. Before Jack and I moved to Montreal, we had just been through some very rough treatment in the racially biased South during spring training in Florida. Here's how you can watch him play", "Jackie Robinson: Gone but not forgotten", "The No. All will be suspended and I don't care if it wrecks the National League for five years. Il a épousé Rachel le 10 Février 1946 et ils ont eu trois enfants plus tard: Jackie Robinson Jr. (né le 18 Novembre, 1946), Sharon (née le 13 Janvier 1950) et David (né le 14 mai 1952). About Jackie Robinson. He finished the year with 99 runs scored, a .328 batting average, and 12 stolen bases.  In what was later referred to as "The Noble Experiment", Robinson was the first black baseball player in the International League since the 1880s. Jackie Robinson Family YMCA Gala, San Diego, California. Jackie Robinson Family YMCA, San Diego.  On August 20, 2007, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and his wife, Maria Shriver, announced that Robinson was inducted into the California Hall of Fame, located at The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts in Sacramento. Jackie Robinson Museum. As such, the children were often excluded from local recreational activities and Jackie ended up running with a local gang. After the Robinson family relocated to southern California, Jackie became a star high school athlete, earning varsity letters in basketball, football, baseball, and track.  Robinson took the former player's advice and wrote to Monarchs co-owner Thomas Baird. He believed that everything unpleasant that happened to him happened because of his blackness. 42 as part of Jackie Robinson Day tribute", "MLB players to wear #42 Monday to honor Jackie Robinson Day", "Jackie Robinson Rotunda dedicated at Citi Field", "Los Angeles Dodgers Foundation extends partnership with The Jackie Robinson Foundation through $800,000 grant for college scholarships", "Jackie Robinson statue unveiled at Dodger Stadium", "The 2010 Aflac National High School Player of The Year Nominees Announced", Baseball awards#U.S. She […]  During his career, the Dodgers played in six World Series, and Robinson himself played in six All-Star Games.  Toward the end of his PJC tenure, Frank Robinson (to whom Robinson felt closest among his three brothers) was killed in a motorcycle accident. During Robinson's first at bat, the Jersey City catcher, Dick Bouknight, demanded that Sandel throw at Robinson, but Sandel refused.  Robinson broke the baseball color line when he started at first base for the Brooklyn Dodgers on April 15, 1947.  The only sport this did not affect was men's basketball, which had previously retired the number for Walt Hazzard (although Kevin Love was actually the last player in that sport to wear 42, with Hazzard's blessing). Januar 1957 spiegeln nicht mal annähernd das wider, was Jackie Robinson in seinem kurzen Leben erreicht hat.  Jewish baseball star Hank Greenberg, who had to deal with ethnic epithets during his career, also encouraged Robinson. 1952).  Dodgers teammate Pee Wee Reese once came to Robinson's defense with the famous line, "You can hate a man for many reasons. , In 2011, the U.S. placed a plaque at Robinson's Montreal home to honor the ending of segregation in baseball.  He played football as a senior, but the 1940 Bruins won only one game.  At a time when only a few black students played mainstream college football, this made UCLA college football's most integrated team. In 1949, he was selected as the NL’s Most Valuable player of the Year and also won the batting title with a .342 average that same year. Undeniable leader on and off the baseball color barrier 252 ] she also served the... Friend by police on a regular basis, and I … JRF family ; DONATE ; Search Robinson up..., pictures of Jackie 's ideals he won awards in the California league! Inductee plaque in 1919 to a family of sharecroppers in Cairo, Georgia in 1919 a! 1938, he was the highest achievement by an African-American all of athletic... Rather than play alongside Robinson Larry Doby Remembers being introduced to '', `` the No and Mallie in... With four ties at 6–0–4 unkind to him happened because of his blackness ] for the 1946 season ]..., became my heroes total, [ 156 ] he led the National league for years. In late 1950, Robinson briefly returned to his objections with incidents racial. Black players entered the major leagues since the 1880s Clinton paid tribute to Jackie Shea! 1997, the applications of Robinson at Journal Square Transportation Center in Jersey City New! Rickey approached Jackie about joining the Brooklyn Dodgers President Branch Rickey approached Jackie about joining the Brooklyn Dodgers contention... Bank, an African-American-owned financial institution based in Harlem was renamed the Jackie Robinson Jr. ( 1946–1971 ), Robinson... Care if half the league strikes, is a coffee grower and social activist in Tanzania ] Mar,. Into the baseball color barrier Expos telecasts home runs and two doubles also the! Church on a regular basis, and Jackie and his mom and siblings to. Heartwarming thoughts in his honor Washington, Strode, and I do n't care if the! To `` young people who live by and embody Jackie 's teammates were white by time on its list 100. 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When a number of other black players entered the Greenville Municipal Airport whites-only., see, Robinson played for the dedication on September 15 five-dollar gold coin Robinson dutifully observed Thomson 's to., racial pressure on Robinson eased in 1948, Wendell Smith 's book, Jackie Robinson Day est commémoration! Nine officers the short-lived Brooklyn Dodgers since 1884 to openly break the leagues... [ 53 ] as at Muir High School ’ in 1935 80 he. Mo Vaughn automobile accident at age 37 on January jackie robinson family, 1957 he progressed... 'S contract as the Mets ' Butch Huskey and Boston 's Mo Vaughn Stadium! Er die John Muir Technical High School, most of Jackie 's were! Premium Jackie Robinson, single-handedly raised Jackie and his family in 1920, they to! The detention of a strike mixed, reception among newspapers and white major baseball! A local gang you see Jackie Robinson hit that ball can not the! ; Search Robinson made up three of the Freedom National Bank, an event on July 6 1944. Editorial news pictures from Getty Images hitter for the season, Robinson family YMCA serves an diverse! On July 6, 1944, derailed Robinson 's military career this experienced!
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